Investigating postdoctoral salaries in the United States
There is very little information available on how much postdocs are actually paid in the U.S. It is generally assumed that biomedical postdocs in particular are paid roughly in accordance with the NIH NRSA scale and indeed the National Postdoctoral Association’s Institutional Policy Report and Database show that most institutions have a policy to pay postdocs in accordance with the NRSA scale. This scale is a guideline, however, and the absolute legal minimum for postdoc salaries is largely determined by the Fair Labor Standards Act, or FLSA.
In 2016, we tracked how institutions were changing policies for salaries in response to updates to the FLSA, which would in effect have brought the legal salary threshold from $23,660 to $47,476. The tracking effort is documented in our FLSA and postdocs resource and published in our paper, Monitoring the compliance of the academic enterprise with the Fair Labor Standards Act.
The updates never came to pass, and so the mandate to raise salaries was removed. Many institutions committed to continuing to raise salaries, as did the NIH; but a very small number of institutions chose to cancel plans to change salary policies. This led us to consider the question of what the salary landscape for postdocs looks like in the U.S. – and whether it would be possible to determine salaries easily, given that we are already involved in efforts to harmonize postdoc titles, and have pointed to the difficulties in even counting postdocs caused by the administration of postdocs. We are also gathering information on differences in compensation and benefits for postdocs on research grants, vs postdocs on fellowships or training mechanisms in the U.S. At some institutions, it is possible that an institution may choose not to give postdocs the same salaries or benefits as postdocs on research grants, whereas other institutions take steps to ensure equal treatment. There are even institutions who reward those who apply for and receive fellowships – see more here in our graduate and postdoctoral fellowships resource under construction.
Here we provide the results of a data collection effort, to determine the state of postdoctoral salaries on December 1st 2016. The data are preliminary and not of a standard that allows for detailed comparison of institutions, although we are able to see some interesting broad trends which we are investigating further. The data are described in more detail below, but we have the following broad observations:
- the ability of institutions to report out postdoc salary data is highly variable; in particular there are institutions who are able to report out data of a high standard, which may indicate institutional commitments to supporting postdoctoral offices and officers, and in ensuring postdoctoral administration is prioritized;
- the proposed FLSA threshold salary and NIH NRSA Year 0 stipend appear to be important benchmarks – 22% of postdocs in our dataset were on salaries in the range of $47,475 to $47,500; 5.5% were on exactly $47,484 (the new NRSA minimum) and 10.1% were on exactly $47,476 (the proposed FLSA minimum).
- the floor for the lowest postdoc salaries is hard to determine, due to ambiguities in how many institutions report salaries (particularly in the case of postdocs paid on fellowships who are not paid through the institution). Some institutions however do report salaries combining all sources of compensation, demonstrating that this is possible.
We invite you to explore the data with us, as we continue to analyze it. We will publish a blog post each day in November discussing data from each university system or institution, pointing out nuances and the results of discussions we have had with people at these institutions that illustrate why comparing data between institutions is challenging. We hope that through this public refinement process, we can gather more information and clarify some issues that could be beneficial for all involved. Feel free to comment on the posts and join the discussion, as we start on a journey to increase transparency about postdoctoral salaries!
A story on this work appeared on November 1st in Nature.
Postdoc salary data summary
A downloadable version of this data is available; new versions will appear as we update, with dates in the file name: Postdoc Salary Summary Sheet 2016 Nov 1st 2017 version.
The most recent version appears below. Some tabs may take a while to load, particularly tabs 4 and 5:
There are currently data from 52 institutions (51 public, 1 private) representing most public institutions with > 300 postdocs. The data requested was the annual salary for all postdocs across all fields, full-time employees only, with their title and salary, as of Dec 1 2016.
Excluding around 400 reported salaries for full-time postdocs below $23,660, assumed due to reporting errors/represent only paid-direct, there is salary data for 12652 postdocs (perhaps roughly 15% of the postdoc population), from $23,660 to $114,600, which fall in the following ranges:
- <$30k: 193 postdocs or 1.5% (with the caveat that these may be mostly reporting ambiguities)
- $30k – $39,999.99: 859 postdocs or 6.8%
- $40k – $49,999.99: 7697 postdocs or 60.8%
- $50k – $59,999.99: 2817 postdocs or 22.3%
- $60k – $69,999.99: 821 postdocs or 6.5%
- >$70k: 266 postdocs or 2.1% (with the caveat that these may possibly be permanent positions)
The Postdoctoral Experience Revisited report in 2014 recommended a $50k minimum (in 2014 dollars) for ALL postdocs. Using the Personal Consumption Expenditure index, this would be $51,070 in 2016; 23.7% of ALL postdocs are above this level.
The proposed FLSA threshold salary and NIH NRSA Year 0 stipend appear to be important benchmarks, as 22% of postdocs in our dataset were on salaries in the range of $47,475 to $47,500; 5.5% were on exactly $47,484 (the new NRSA minimum) and 10.1% were on exactly $47,476 (the proposed FLSA minimum). As we do not have data from the year before, it is not possible to conclude that all salaries in this range were raised to this level. Repeating our data collection for Dec 1st 2017 may assist in gathering longitudinal data.
Discussions of data by institution
We will post here every day in November about the salary data we have, by institution (subject to change, more institutions may be added):
- University of Washington
- University of Illinois
- Boston University
- Michigan State University
- Florida State University
- University of California
- University of North Carolina Chapel Hill
- University of Colorado
- University of Texas
- Iowa State University
- University of Iowa
- Rutgers University
- University of Cincinnati
- North Carolina State University
- Purdue University
- State University of New York
- November 18: Texas A&M
- November 19: The Ohio State University
- November 20: University of Arizona
- November 21: University of Florida
- November 22: University of Indiana
- November 23: University of Maryland
- November 24: University of Massachusetts Medical School
- November 25: University of Minnesota
- November 26: University of South Florida
- November 27: University of Utah
- November 28: University of Virginia
- November 29: Wayne State University
- November 30: University of Michigan