Investigating postdoctoral salaries in the United States






More information below



There is very little information available on how much postdocs are actually paid in the U.S. It is generally assumed that biomedical postdocs in particular are paid roughly in accordance with the NIH NRSA scale and indeed the National Postdoctoral Association’s Institutional Policy Report and Database show that most institutions have a policy to pay postdocs in accordance with the NRSA scale. This scale is a guideline, however, and the absolute legal minimum for postdoc salaries is largely determined by the Fair Labor Standards Act, or FLSA.


In 2016, we tracked how institutions were changing policies for salaries in response to updates to the FLSA, which would in effect have brought the legal salary threshold from $23,660 to $47,476. The tracking effort is documented in our FLSA and postdocs resource and published in our paper, Monitoring the compliance of the academic enterprise with the Fair Labor Standards Act.


The updates never came to pass, and so the mandate to raise salaries was removed. Many institutions committed to continuing to raise salaries, as did the NIH; but a very small number of institutions chose to cancel plans to change salary policies. This led us to consider the question of what the salary landscape for postdocs looks like in the U.S. – and whether it would be possible to determine salaries easily, given that we are already involved in efforts to harmonize postdoc titles, and have pointed to the difficulties in even counting postdocs caused by the administration of postdocs. We are also gathering information on differences in compensation and benefits for postdocs on research grants, vs postdocs on fellowships or training mechanisms in the U.S. At some institutions, it is possible that an institution may choose not to give postdocs the same salaries or benefits as postdocs on research grants, whereas other institutions take steps to ensure equal treatment. There are even institutions who reward those who apply for and receive fellowships – see more here in our graduate and postdoctoral fellowships resource under construction.


Here we provide the results of a data collection effort, to determine the state of postdoctoral salaries on December 1st 2016. The data are preliminary and not of a standard that allows for detailed comparison of institutions, although we are able to see some interesting broad trends which we are investigating further. The data are described in more detail below, but we have the following broad observations:


  • the ability of institutions to report out postdoc salary data is highly variable; in particular there are institutions who are able to report out data of a high standard, which may indicate institutional commitments to supporting postdoctoral offices and officers, and in ensuring postdoctoral administration is prioritized;
  • the proposed FLSA threshold salary and NIH NRSA Year 0 stipend appear to be important benchmarks – 22% of postdocs in our dataset were on salaries in the range of $47,475 to $47,500; 5.5% were on exactly $47,484 (the new NRSA minimum) and 10.1% were on exactly $47,476 (the proposed FLSA minimum).
  • the floor for the lowest postdoc salaries is hard to determine, due to ambiguities in how many institutions report salaries (particularly in the case of postdocs paid on fellowships who are not paid through the institution). Some institutions however do report salaries combining all sources of compensation, demonstrating that this is possible.


We invite you to explore the data with us, as we continue to analyze it. We published a blog post each day in November discussing data from each university system or institution, pointing out nuances and the results of discussions we had with people at these institutions that illustrate why comparing data between institutions is challenging. Feel free to comment on the posts and join the discussion!


A story on this work appeared on November 1st in Nature. We have published a preprint of our preliminary data analysis on bioRxiv – see “Assessing the Landscape of U.S. Postdoctoral Salaries



Submit your postdoc salary!




One of the limitations you will have noticed is that we are only able to get data from public institutions in a standard manner through Freedom of Information Act requests; and even then, we often receive not total salaries, but what is paid through the institution (i.e. if a postdoc is paid directly on a fellowship, we see salaries of $0, or low amounts if the stipend is supplemented).



Therefore, in an effort to not only gather data more widely about postdoc salaries, but also to ensure that data collection effort results in greater transparency about postdoc salaries, we have joined forces with the team behind Personal Finances for PhDs (who have given advice on the Hello PhD podcast about taxes and most recently retirement savings), and who also run the site Thousand of PhD stipends have been reported on their site – and furthermore, we know of institutions using this data to benchmark their own PhD stipends. Therefore they have developed – a site where you can enter your annual salary as a postdoc from the present back to 2013.



The site aims to make the discussion about salaries more transparent, and also by working together we hope to eventually be able to make use of salary data from the site to assist in our analysis. For institutions in the U.S., there is the option to fill in demographic data, which will NOT be posted along with the individual data entries, but will instead be used to generate aggregate data to answer some of the questions we have been looking to ask with our data collection efforts already – for example, how does visa status affect salary? Do the preliminary findings in our preprint that there are predicted regional gender disparities in salaries also hold true for self-reported data?



Our data-sharing agreement is on the basis that data which can allow identification of personal information on the individual level will not be released, to protect those who do choose to provide optional data. We may never reach sufficient numbers of responses to report on some of these elements but we prefer that some questions go unanswered rather than risk endangering those who report their data.



The form also asks information about available benefits, and whether you successfully negotiated your salary level, and  provides space for text comments for any further information you wish to give. We hope you’ll enjoy sharing and looking through the data, and thanks in advance – we’d really appreciate it if you pass this along to any early career researchers you know.



Please feel free to get in touch with any questions and concerns you may have – we’ll work on an FAQ section ASAP!
Postdoc salary data summary

We have published a preprint, “Assessing the Landscape of U.S. Postdoctoral Salaries“, on bioRxiv. We are currently revising the document for publication in a peer-reviewed journal. Please get in touch with any comments either by commenting on the preprint, or emailing


A downloadable version of this data is available; new versions will appear as we update, with dates in the file name: Postdoc Salary Summary Sheet 2016 Feb 16th 2018 version.

The most recent version appears below. Some tabs may take a while to load, particularly tabs 4 and 5:

There are currently data from 52 institutions (51 public, 1 private) representing most public institutions with > 300  postdocs. The data requested was the annual salary for all postdocs across all fields, full-time employees only, with their title and salary, as of Dec 1 2016.

Excluding around 400 reported salaries for full-time postdocs below $23,660, assumed due to reporting errors/represent only paid-direct, there is salary data for 12652 postdocs (perhaps roughly 15% of the postdoc population), from $23,660 to $114,600, which fall in the following ranges:

  • <$30k: 193 postdocs or 1.5% (with the caveat that these may be mostly reporting ambiguities)
  • $30k – $39,999.99: 859 postdocs or 6.8%
  • $40k – $49,999.99: 7697 postdocs or 60.8%
  • $50k – $59,999.99: 2817 postdocs or 22.3%
  • $60k – $69,999.99: 821 postdocs or 6.5%
  • >$70k: 266 postdocs or 2.1% (with the caveat that these may possibly be permanent positions)

The Postdoctoral Experience Revisited report in 2014 recommended a $50k minimum (in 2014 dollars) for ALL postdocs. Using the Personal Consumption Expenditure index, this would be $51,070 in 2016; 23.7% of ALL postdocs are above this level.


The proposed FLSA threshold salary and NIH NRSA Year 0 stipend appear to be important benchmarks, as 22% of postdocs in our dataset were on salaries in the range of $47,475 to $47,500; 5.5% were on exactly $47,484 (the new NRSA minimum) and 10.1% were on exactly $47,476 (the proposed FLSA minimum). As we do not have data from the year before, it is not possible to conclude that all salaries in this range were raised to this level. Repeating our data collection for Dec 1st 2017 may assist in gathering longitudinal data.